The Jominy end quench test. Introduction: The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the. The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a given set. PDF | The Jominy end-quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel , which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a.

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The Jominy End Quench Test, ASTM A

Hardenability is the ability of a steel to partially or completely transform from austenite to some fraction of martensite at a given depth below the surface, when cooled under a given condition.

This alternative longer video clip contributed by Oxford Brookes Fest shows both the transfer of the sample from furnace to Jominy machine, and the jet spraying one end of the sample. The simulation ignores the effect of heat loss from the sides of the specimen, i.

A typical plot of hardness along the length of the 10 cm long steel rod. The bar is divided into 25 equal length elements, and, at each time step of the simulation, for each element, a new temperature, resulting from heat transfer at either end, is calculated. A standardised quencj, For example, the cooling rate at a distance of 9.

The Jominy End Quench Test

En 8 is a low hardenability steel when compared with En This TLP considers the basic concepts of hardenability and the Jominy test. Structure of En 8, 1 cm from quenched end of Jominy bar. Increasing the carbon content increases the hardness of steels up to about 0. The Vickers hardness test uses a square pyramidal diamond indentor. Structure of En 24 testt 5 cm position along Jominy bar.

This animation requires Adobe Flash Player quencch and later, which can be downloaded here. The main alloying elements which affect hardenability are qusnch, boron and a group of elements including Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni. The formatting page breaks, etc of the printed version is unpredictable and highly dependent on your browser.


There are quite complex interactions between the different elements, which also affect the temperatures of the phase transformation and the resultant microstructure. After quenching the hardness profile is measured at intervals from the quenched end after the surface has been ground back to remove any effects of decarburisation 0.

Jominy End Quench Test

Slower cooling rates occur at the core of larger components, compared to the faster cooling rate at the surface. Please follow this link if you would like to provide a short review for this TLP.

At higher carbon levels, the formation of martensite is depressed to lower temperatures and the transformation from austenite to martensite may be incomplete, leading to retained jlminy. Hardenability therefore describes the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a tst set of conditions.

The hardness variation along the test surface is a result of microstructural variation which arises since the qiench rate decreases with distance from the quenched end. High carbon steels are prone to distortion twst cracking during heat treatment, and can be difficult to machine in the annealed condition before heat treatment.

The steel sample is normalised to eliminate differences in microstructure due to previous forging, and then austenitised. For example, a steel of a high hardenability can transform to a high fraction of martensite to depths of several millimetres under relatively slow cooling, such as an oil quench, whereas a steel of low hardenability may only form a high fraction of martensite to a jkminy of less than a millimetre, even under rapid cooling such as a water quench.

Example Jominy end quench test data A plain carbon steel and an alloy steel were assessed using the Jominy end quench test. The proportions of the phases at any position depends quenvh the cooling rate, with more martensite formed where the cooling rate is fastest. This results in a progressive decrease in the rate of cooling along the bar from the quenched end. Data from the Jominy end quench test can be used queench determine whether a particular steel can be sufficiently hardened in different quenching media, for different section diameters.


The effect of boron is also independent of the amount of boron, provided sufficient is added, and the effect of boron is greatest at lower carbon contents.

Steels with high hardenability are needed for large high strength components, such as large extruder screws for injection moulding of polymers, pistons for rock breakers, mine shaft supports, aircraft undercarriages, and also for small high precision components such as die-casting moulds, drills and presses for stamping coins.

Select the most appropriate steel to achieve the necessary levels of mechanical properties, residual stress and distortion in a 1mm diameter wood-working drill.

A high hardenability is required for through hardening of large components. The Vickers test is most commonly used in the UK. Ferrite and pearlite are formed where the cooling rate is slower.

The Jominy End Quench Test

It’s important to use the correct conversion chart for different materials, since the hardness test causes plastic strain, and therefore varies with the strain hardening properties of the material. The round specimen is then ground flat along its length to a depth of 0. The data is shown as Vickers and Rockwell hardness.

Jominy end quench unit for testing the hardenability of steels. The recorded hardness depends on the indentation load and the width of the square indentation made by the diamond. tezt

The Rockwell hardness test measures a number which depends on the difference in the depth of an indentation made by two loads, a minor load followed by a major load. The depth from the quenched end, over which martensite is obtained, is then the measure of hardenability. James Marrow University of Cambridge Content development: